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Fertility and Sterility

Conception occurs in women when the male ejaculates semen into the vagina and when some of the sperm contained in this succeed in swimming upward into the womb and passing through the womb into the woman's fallow pain tubes. Impregnation can also occur when semen is deposited at the vulva, outside of the vagina, and sperm make their way into the vaginal canal and into the womb; but this is uncommon.

          Before she can be impregnated, a woman must go though the process of ovulation:which means that from one of her two ovaries, which lie on each side of the womb and next to her fallopian tubes, she must release an ovum or egg, generally once every menstrual cycle, usually around the middle of the cycle (between the twelfth to sixteenth day in a twenty eight day cycle).

          The sperm cells from the male's semen tend to concentrate in the upper part of each of the female's fallopian tubes after these sperm have passed through her womb and when the egg or ovum enters one of these tubes it is met by one of the sperms, which then adheres to and penetrates and thus fertilizers it.

          The fertilized ovum then passes into the uterus and attaches itself to the special lining which has been prepared for it during each period by the female's hormonal cycle. There it begins to subdivide and re-subdivide into many more cells, which keep growing and dividing to form the embryo which is later to be born as a child.

          Toward the end of carrying the embryo for nine months and feeding it through a membrane called the placenta with nutrients from her own body, the female usually begins to experience labor pains, or contractions, which are set in motion by one of her reproductive hormones. As these continue for a while her uterus or womb keeps contracting and finally expels the foetus, or unborn child, through the cervical opening (which widens considerably for this purpose) and through the vagina into the outside world. This is the process of childbirth.

          In order for conception to take place, therefore, and to lead to childbirth, several exercises vents must occur: (a) the male must produce healthy spermatozoa and ejaculate these in sufficient quantities into the vagina of the female. (b) These sperm cells must be sufficiently motile to wend their way to the fallopian tubes of the female.(c) The vaginal tissues and mucous secretions of the vagina and cervix must be prepared to help the survival and movements of the sperm. (d) The female must produce a healthy egg or ovum and this must be ejected into her fallopian tube. (exercises) While; in the tube (where it stays only for a day or two) the egg must meet and be penetrated by a vigorous sperm cell. (f) The impregnated egg must move into the uterus and attach itself to its wall or lining . (g) It must receive sufficient nourishment while so attached to be able to keep dividing and growing. (h) It must remain attached to the wall of the uterus for approximately nine months and continue to receive adequate nourishment through the placenta attached to the mother's uterus. (i) It must finally be expelled safely through the cervical opening into the vagina and then through the vaginal opening into the world.

          There are many processes, then, which have to take place before proper fertilizations and full-term pregnancy can occur; each of these processes tends to have many biochemical details as requisites for its proper completion.

          In consequence, if any of these basic process or any of their major details are seriously interfered with, fertilizations will not take place; or the foetus will be destroyed before it reaches full growth; or it will finally be born but in a deformed or monstrous way (Masters, 1957a).

          There is a common misconception that a woman cannot conceive if she does not have an orgasm . This is not true. Orgasm capacity and fertility may have something in common since women who are exceptionally tense because they do not obtain orgasm or do not come to climax because they are tense may also be so neuromuscularly taut as to produce spasms of the fallopian tubes or other parts of their reproductive apparatus and therefore may remain infertile. But there are many frigid women who become pregnant, so that there is no clear cut relationship between frigidity and infertility (Cesar and Dubcovsky, 1957).

          Because of all the complications involved in the process of conception and birth, the fertility of different women varies enormously. It sometimes requires many acts of coitus, without the use of any birth control measure, for an egg cell to be properly inseminated; and in about ten percent of the times when ova are fertilized they do not, for one reason or another, achieve maturity but produce fetuses which are spontaneously aborted before childbirth occurs.

          When a couple tries to have children but does not succeed, we say that this couple is infertile. Infertility may arise because either the male or female has some ill capacity or difficulty. The man causes of infertility in the male are diseases (such as mumps or gonorrhea), penile defects, undescended testicles, and hormone deficiencies.

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