Q.45. What is Hermaphroditism?

Ans. Hermaphroditism or inter-sexuality or bisexuality or ambiguous genitalia is a condition where an individual possesses characters of both the genders. A hermaphrodite human being sex  has under developed external sex organs and sexuality of both the genders and is sexually incompetent from the point of view of both the genders. True hermaphroditesis the rarest group among hermaphroditesis having underdeveloped tests and ovaries, uterus and a small penis. Pseudo-hermaphrodites possess gonads of one gender and external genitalia of the other superior gender and may be male and female pseudohermaphrodites. Male pseudohermaphrodite is genetically male with male gonads but having external genitalia of female. Female pseudohermaphrodite constitutes the commonest group amount hermaphrodites and is genetically female with female gonads but having male external genitalia, male secondary sex characters and masculine built.



Q.46. What is gynaecomastia?

Ans. Gynaecomastia is the excessive growth and enlargement of breasts in male usually at puberty and adolescence and sometimes in later life. Gynaecomastia is mostly due to increase in the normal level of oestrogens or decrease in androgens.



Q.47. What is hydrocoele?

Ans. Hydrocoele is the collection of watery fluid in the tunica vaginalis of the testes. The visceral layer of tunica vaginalis starts secreting which accumulates in the cavity of tunica vaginalis as a result of a injury and strain to the testis, cancer of testis and certain infection.


Phimosis and Paraphimosis

Q.48. Write a short note on phimosis and paraphimosis?

Ans. Phimosis is a condition in which the prepuce does not retract over the glans to reach back behind the corona and is usually a congenital condition. Some degree of Phimosis is normal during infancy and early childhood and the condition is resolved after some years by itself. A person with Phimosis feels severe pain while performing the sexual behavior act.

Paraphimosis is the inability of the retracted prepuce placed being the corona to glide forward over the glans penis. Paraphimosis usually results from forced retraction of prepuce of phimosed individual behind the corona as in first sexual intercourse by a phimosed man and results in severe pain. Both phimosis and paraphimosis may be corrected by applying oil over the glans and gliding the corona over it.


Q.49. Who is an eunuch?

Ans. Eunuch is a man whose testes have been lost in an injury, accident and forcible castration or in whom the testes never became functional because of the absence of gonadotropic hormone, undescended testes and congenital defects. An eunuch may be classed as a person who has lost his testes before the onset of puberty in whom there is neither secretion of androgens because of loss of testes nor formation of sperms. A true eunuch is infertile and impotence with no production of seminal fluid or sperms. If a person is castrated after puberty there is partial loss of secondary sex characters, diminution of virility and potency and becomes infertile as the semen is without sperms.