Menstrual Irregularities


Q.50. Discuss briefly the menstrual irregularitics?

Ans. Precocious menstruation is the occurrence of menstruation at an early age because of precocious puberty. Premenstrual tension and mid-menstrual pain occur in some women about a week prior to the onset of menstruation and for several hours at the time of ovulation respectively and are physiological to a great extent. Amenorrhoea is the cessation of menstruation which may be primary when a woman has never menstruated though she is an adolescent or secondary when she has stopped menstruating before the menopausal age. Cryptomenorrhoea is the hidden menstrual bleeding and may be congenital or acquired. Oligomenorrhoea or hypomenorrhoea is the scanty and infrequent menstruation. Dysmenorrhoea is menstruation associated with severe pain and is of congestive, spasmodic and membranous types. Menorrhagia is the increase in the duration and quantity of menstruation though the menstrual cycle is of the same normal period.

Polymenorrhoea or epimenorrhoea is frequent menstruation with duration of menstrual cycle reduced from fifteen to twenty days. Epimenorrhagia is the combination of epimenorrhoea and menorrhagia in which duration and quantity of menstruation is increased in which menstrual cycles coupled with frequent menstrual cycles of fifteen to twenty days. Menorrhagia is irregular bleeding from uterus or any other part of the female genital tract with inter-menstrual bleeding once or several times in a cycle. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is one of the commonest gynaecological entity associated with any abnormality of bleeding in which menorrhagia occurs without any known cause. Metropathia haemorrhagia is a variant of dysfunctional uterine bleeding in which there is a painless continuous bleeding sometimes preceded by amenorrhoea. Postmenopausal haemorrhage is the irregular bleeding after several months of menopause .


Q.51. What is Leucorrhoea?

Ans. Leucorrhoea is the increase in the normal vaginal secretion as colorless vaginal discharge. The normal vaginal discharge, increases physiologically in the first few days of life, puberty, pregnancy, ovulation and sexual stimulation. The main pathological causes of watery leucorrhoea are infection, inflammation and cancers of genital tract, cervical erosions, cervical tear, urinary tract and lower intestinal tract infection, uterine prolapse, anemia, chronic constipation, fried spicy food and sedentary life style. Light green watery leucorrhoea is due to trichomonal infection. Thick white leucorrhoea is due to fungal infection. Low grade fever, bodyache, weakness and depression are the symptoms of venereal diseases usually associated with Leucorrhoea. Treatment of Leucorrhoea is by adequate sleep, good balanced diet including honey and Indian gooseberry, which provide symptomatic relief and cure infection.


Q.52. What is vulvo- vaginitis?

Ans. Vulvo-vaginitis is the simultaneous inflammation of vulva and vagina. It usually occurs in the prepubertal and post menopausal period because of low glycogen, less number of doderlein bacilli and low acidity of vaginal orgasm mucosa thereby exposing it to various infections. Vulvo-vaginitis results in reddening, swelling itching and purulent discharge. Bed Rest adequate oral fluids, local cleanliness and antiseptic application are a part of the treatment.

Prolapse of Uterus

Q.53. Describe prolapse of uterus in brief?

Ans. Prolapse of uterus is the displacement of the uterus from its normal position which comes out of the vagina. It is usually seen in a multipara and post menopausal woman. Cause of prolapse are weakness of ligaments and muscles supporting the uterus because of repeated child births and abortions, poor muscular built, anemia, chronic constipation, chronic cough and heavy weight lifting. If the vagina also prolapse along with uterus, it is called utero-vaginal prolapse. Backache is the commonest symptom of uterine prolapse. Prevention lies in avoiding the causative factors along with good diet, adequate rest and regular physical exercise.